What is Earthing: Types, Advantages
Table of Contents
Have you ever felt a slight shock when touching some appliances while they are on and functioning? These shocks can occasionally pose serious risks and be dangerous. It is always advisable to have the building properly earthed to prevent accidents. It is known as earthing to share the charges with the earth. The devices are shielded from electrical damage by earthing, which is a straightforward method for current leakage. In addition to balancing the load when the electrical system overloads, grounding is a safety procedure. That safeguards the entire power system from malfunction.
According to the definition, it is “the process in which the instantaneous discharge of electrical energy takes place by transferring charges directly to the earth through low resistance wire.”
The least resistant path for fault current leakage is chosen, which calls for low resistance earthing wire.
How is Earthing Done?
Connecting the electrical appliance to earthing systems or electrodes positioned close to the soil or below the ground level will ensure safety. Installed below ground level is the electrode or earthings mat with a flat iron riser. All of the equipment’s metallic non-current-carrying components should be connected.
The earthings system incorporated into an electrical system is shown in the image below.
The fault current from the equipment travels through the earthing system when the equipment is subjected to an overload current or when a system fault results from the current. The earth mat conductors help protect the equipment from overload current or fault current by increasing the voltage value equal to the earth mat’s resistance times a ground fault. There must be three different wire types in homes: live, neutral, and earth. The earth is connected to the buried metal plate, and live and neutral conduct electric current from the power plant. When in use, electric appliances like TVs, iron boxes, and refrigerators are all connected to the earth wire. Hence, these devices are protected from the surge or faulty electrical supply. Local earthings are done near the electrical metre of the house.
Types of Earthing
There are Four types of earthing, they are:
1. Pipe Earthing
Using a steel pipe to connect to the electrical conductors of the earth is a common practice known as pipe earthing. In pipe earthing, a 38 mm diameter by 2 m long galvanized steel pipe that is laid vertically in the ground serves as an earth electrode. The size of the iron pipe that must be used depends on the soil’s moisture content and the current’s intensity. The maximum depth at which steel pipe can be installed will depend on how moist the soil is. Pipe earthing is the best and most efficient method of earthing, and it is also very inexpensive.
2. Plate Earthing
A plate made of copper or galvanized iron is positioned vertically in the ground pit, less than three meters above the ground, for this type of earthing. So Maintaining the earth’s moisture condition around the plate earthing system is necessary for a more effective electrical grounding system. To reroute the electric charge within the earth, this plate is fastened to electrical wires.
3. Strip or Wire Earthing
In this method of earthing, strip electrodes are buried in horizontal trenches at a minimum depth of 0.5 m and with a minimum cross-sectional area of 6.0 mm2. If the electrodes are made of steel or iron that has been galvanized, their cross-sectional area must be at least 25 mm by 1.6 mm. A conductor with a minimum length of 15 m would be sufficient to provide adequate earth resistance when buried in the ground.
4. Rod Earthing
The lengths of the implanted electrodes reduce the earth’s resistance in this method of earthing, which involves manually or with a hammer inserting a copper rod with a galvanized steel pipe into the ground at the desired depth. The rod used for this purpose is securely diverting the short-circuit electricity to the ground by being buried in the soil at a specific depth. This earthing method is very affordable and suitable for sandy areas.
- Metal can be used in electrical installations without considering its conductivity because it won’t transfer current if it is properly earthed.
- The safest and most effective way to provide safety is through earthing. So We are aware that the earth has no potential and is considered neutral. Balancing is accomplished because low resistance wire is used to connect low equipment to the earth.
- It reduces the possibility of fire hazards that the current leakage might otherwise bring about.
- So If proper earthing precautions are taken, a sudden increase in voltage or overload has no negative effects on the object or the user.
Does earthings and grounding mean the same?
How is earthings done?
It is completed by grounding the equipment’s neutral, or non-current-carrying, portion.