What is Embedded System
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What is Embedded System- A system is a set up where all of its components cooperate in accordance with a set of rules. It can also be described as a method of carrying out one or more tasks in accordance with a predetermined schedule. A watch is one example of a device that displays the time. To display time, its elements adhere to a set of rules. The watch won’t function if one of its components breaks down. As a result, we can state that a system’s various components are interdependent.
Embedded refers to something that is joined to another thing, as its name would imply. A computer hardware system with software embedded in it is an example of an embedded system. An embedded system may be a standalone unit or a component of a larger system. So A system built on a microcontroller or microprocessor and intended to carry out a particular function is called an embedded system. A fire alarm, for instance, is an embedded system that only detects smoke.
An embedded system has three components −
- It has hardware.
- It has application software.
- Its Real Time Operating System (RTOS) manages the application software and offers a mechanism to let the processor run a process in accordance with scheduling by adhering to a plan to control latencies. The RTOS specifies how the system operates. So It establishes the rules for the application program’s execution. It’s possible that a small embedded system lacks an RTOS.
Thus, a reliable, real-time control system based on a microcontroller and driven by software constitutes an embedded system.
Characteristics of an Embedded System
- Single-functioned − Embedded systems typically carry out repetitively the same specialized task. An example would be: A pager always works as a pager.
- Tightly constrained − Design metric restrictions apply to all computing systems, but they may be particularly strict in the case of embedded systems. Design metrics are a way to gauge an implementation’s cost, size, power, and other characteristics. So It needs to be small enough to fit on a single chip, fast enough to process data in real time, and power-efficient enough to prolong battery life.
- Reactive and Real time − Numerous embedded systems must constantly respond to changes in their environment and compute specific results without any delay in real time. So Take a cruise control system in a car as an example; it continuously monitors and responds to speed and brake sensors. And So It must repeatedly calculate accelerations and decelerations within a set amount of time; if the computation is delayed, the car may not be controlled.
- Microprocessors based − It must be microprocessor or microcontroller based.
- Memory − Given that its software is typically embedded in ROM, it must have a memory. The computer doesn’t require any extra memory.
- Connected − In order to connect input and output devices, peripherals must be connected.
- HW-SW systems − For more features and flexibility, software is used. Performance and security are enhanced by hardware.
- Low power consumption
- Easily Customizable
- Enhanced performance
- Low cost
- Larger time to market
- High development effort
Basic Structure of an Embedded System
The fundamental design of an embedded system is depicted in the illustration below.
- Sensor − It measures the physical quantity and transforms it into an electrical signal that an observer or any other electronic device, such as an A2D converter, can read. So The quantity that was measured is stored in memory by a sensor.
- A-D Converter − The analog signal that the sensor sends is transformed into a digital signal by an analog-to-digital converter.
- Processor & ASICs − Processors process the data to measure the output and store it to the memory.
- D-A Converter − A digital-to-analog converter converts the digital data fed by the processor to analog data
- Actuator − An actuator stores the approved output after comparing the D-A Converter’s output to the actual (expected) output that was previously stored in it.