What is Biasing
Table of Contents
Transistor Biasing, What is Biasing, Fixed Bias or Base Bias, Stability of Operating Point
What is Biasing
Biasing is the process of supplying DC voltage that aids in the circuit’s operation. In order for a transistor to remain in the active region and function as an amplifier, the emitter base junction must be forward biased and the collector base junction must be reverse biased.
Transistor biassing refers to the proper flow of zero signal collector current and the maintenance of proper collector emitter voltage during the passage of the signal. Biasing Circuit refers to the circuit that provides transistor biassing.
Fixed Bias or Base Bias:
A transistor needs to be properly biased in order to amplify. This entails reverse biasing the collector base junction and forward biasing the base emitter junction. The transistor should be operating in the active region for linear amplification (If IE increases, IC increases, VCE decreases proportionally).
The source VBB, through a current limit resistor RB forward biases the emitter diode and VCC through resistor RC (load resistance) reverse bias
Dc base current through RB is given by
IB = (VBB – VBE) / RB
or VBE = VBB – IB RB
Normally VBE is taken 0.7V or 0.3V. If exact voltage is required, then the input characteristic ( IB vs V BE) of the transistor should be used to solve the above equation. The load line for the input circuit is drawn on input characteristic. Two points of the load line can be obtained as given below
For IB = 0, VBE = VBB.
and For VBE = 0, IB = VBB/ RB.
The intersection of this line with input characteristic gives the operating point Q as shown in fig. 2. If an ac signal is connected to the base of the transistor, then variation in VBE is about Q point. This gives variation in IB and hence IC.
In the output circuit, the load equation can be written as -> VCE = VCC- IC RC
This equation involves two unknown VCE and IC and therefore can not be solved. To solve this equation output characteristic ( ICvs VCE) is used.
The load equation is the equation of a straight line and given by two points: IC= 0,
VCE = VCC & VCE = 0, IC= VCC / RC
The intersection of this line which is also called dc load line and the characteristic gives the operating point Q as shown in fig. 3.
The point at which the load line intersects with IB = 0 characteristic is known as cut off point. At this point base current is zero and collector current is almost negligibly small. At cut off the emitter diode comes out of forward bias and normal transistor action is lost. To a close approximation.
VCE ( cut off) VCC (approximately). The intersection of the load line and IB = IB (max) characteristic is known as saturation point. At this point IB= IB (max), IC= IC(sat). At this point collector diodes comes out of reverse bias and again transistor action is lost. To a close approximation, IC(sat) VCC / RC(approximately ).
The IB(sat) is the minimum current required to operate the transistor in saturation region. If the IB is less than IB (sat), the transistor will operate in active region. If IB > IB(sat) it always operates in saturation region.
If the transistor operates at saturation or cut off points and no where else then it is operating as a switch is shown in fig. 4.
VBB = IB RB+ VBE
IB = (VBB – VBE ) / RB
If IB> IB(sat), then it operates at saturation, If IB = 0, then it operates at cut off.
A transistor’s Q point must be carefully chosen if it is to function as an amplifier. The operating range is limited by the various transistor ratings, such as maximum collector dissipation PC(max), maximum collector voltage VC(max), and maximum input current IC(max) & VBE(max), even though we can choose the operating point anywhere in the active region by selecting different values of RB & RC.
Once the Q point is established an ac input is connected. Due to this the ac source the base current varies. As a result of this collector current and collector voltage also varies and the amplified output is obtained.
The output waveform won’t match the input waveform exactly if the Q-point is improperly chosen. Specifically, it may be distorted or clipped from one or both sides.
Stability of Operating Point
Let us consider three operating points of transistor operating in common emitter amplifier.
1. Near cut off
2. Near saturation
3.In the middle of active region
The output is clipped in the negative half cycle as depicted in fig. 1 if the operating point is chosen close to the cutoff region.
And If the operating point is selected near saturation region, then the output is clipped in positive cycle as shown in fig. 2.
If the operating point is selected in the middle of active region, then there is no clipping and the output follows input faithfully as shown in fig. 3. And If input is large then clipping at both sides will take place. The first circuit for biasing the transistor is CE configuration is fixed bias.
In biasing circuit shown in fig. 4(a), two different power supplies are required. To avoid the use of two supplies the base resistance RB is connected to VCC as shown in fig. 4(b).
Now VCC is still forward biasing emitter diode. In this circuit Q point is very unstable. The base resistance RB is selected by noting the required base current IB for operating point Q.
IB = (VCC – VBE ) / RB
Voltage across base emitter junction is approximately 0.7 V. Since VCC is usually very high
i.e. IB = VCC/ RB
It is known as a fixed bias circuit because IB is constant.