IC Fabrication and Classification of IC
Table of Contents
IC Fabrication and Circuit Configuration for Linear IC
IC Full Form- Integrated Circuit
1. Integrated Circuit
A Miniature, Inexpensive electronic circuit known as an Integrated circuit (IC) is made up of both active and passive parts and is Constructed on a single silicon crystal. Transistors and diodes are the active parts, while Resistors and Capacitors are the passive parts.
2. Advantages of Integrated circuit
- Miniaturization and hence Increased equipment density.
- Cost Reduction due to batch processing.
- Increased system Reliability due to the Elimination of Soldered joints.
- Improved Functional performance.
- Matched devices.
- Increased operating speeds.
- Reduction in power Consumption
3. Classification of IC
The three types of integrated circuits are analogue, digital, and mixed signal (both analogue and digital on the same chip). Two distinct IC technologies—monolithic technology and hybrid technology—have been developed in response to the aforementioned specification. All circuit components, including active and passive elements, and their connections are created into or on top of a single silicon chip in monolithic integrated circuits (IC). Various component parts are attached to a ceramic substrate and connected to one another in hybrid circuits using wire bounds or metallization patterns.
In a few square millimetres, digital integrated circuit can fit one to millions of logic gates, flip-flops, multiplexers, and other circuits. Compared to board-level integration, these circuits’ small size enables high speed, low power dissipation, and lower manufacturing costs. These digital ICs, which are typically microprocessors, DSPs, and micro controllers, process “one” and “zero” signals using binary mathematics.
Operational amplifiers, power management circuits, and sensors are examples of analogue integrated circuits (ICs) that process continuous signals. They carry out tasks like active filtering, demodulation, mixing, and amplification. Instead of having to create a challenging analogue circuit from scratch, analogue integrated circuits (ICs) ease the burden on circuit designers.
Classification of IC
SSI, MSI and LSI
There were not many transistors in the first integrated circuit. Digital circuits with transistor counts in the tens, known as “Small-Scale Integration” (SSI), for instance, provided a few logic gates, whereas early linear ICs like the Plessey SL201 or the Philips TAA320 had as few as two transistors. Rolf Landauer, an IBM scientist, coined the phrase “large scale integration” to describe the theoretical idea. From there, the terms “SSI,” “MSI,” “VLSI,” and “ULSI” arose. Around the turn of the century, they started to show up in consumer goods, with FMinter-carrier sound processing in television receivers being one common use.
The next step in the development of integrated circuits, known as “Medium-Scale Integration,” was introduced in the late 1960s and involved devices with hundreds of transistors on each chip (MSI). They were economically appealing because, despite costing only slightly more to produce than SSI devices, they allowed for the production of more complex systems using smaller circuit boards, less assembly work (due to the presence of fewer separate components), and a variety of other benefits.
“Very Large-Scale Integration” was the last stage of the development process, which began in the 1980s and has continued to the present (VLSI). As of 2007, there were more than several billion Transistors in use, up from just a few hundred thousand in the early 1980s.
In 1986 the first one megabit RAM chips were introduced, which Contained more than one million Transistors. Microprocessor chips passed the million Transistor mark in 1989 and the Billion-transistor mark in 2005
To reflect further growth of the Complexity, the term ULSI that stands for “Ultra-Large Scale Integration” was Proposed for chips of Complexity of more than 1 million Transistors.
A single “Super-chip” is created using the Wafer-scale Integration (WSI) method,. Which uses an entire silicon wafer to build very large Integrated circuit. For some systems, particularly Massively parallel Supercomputers, WSI could result in Significantly lower costs through a combination of large size and reduced Packaging. The term Very-Large-Scale Integration, which was the state of the art at the time WSI was being developed, served as the Inspiration for the name.
All of the parts required for a computer. Or other system are Contained on a single chip in a System-on-a-chip (SoC or SOC). The design of such a device can be Intricate and expensive,. And placing various Components on a single silicon piece might reduce the Efficiency of some of them.
These Drawbacks, however, are more than made up for by lower Manufacturing and Assembly costs as well as a Significantly smaller power budget because signals between the Components are kept on-die. Two or more layers of active electronic Components. That are Integrated both Vertically and Horizontally into a single circuit make up a Three-dimensional Integrated circuit (3D-IC). On-die Signalling is used for communication between layers, which Significantly reduces power Consumption compared to Equivalent separate Circuits. Short Vertical wires can Significantly shorten overall wire length for faster operation if used wisely.