Hybrid Stepper Motor
Table of Contents
Hybrid Stepper Motor
An electrical motor converts power (P), volts (V), and amps (A) into mechanical power, torque, and speed. Stepper motors are one of many types of motors that are available depending on the need.Both the rotation angle and the speed are precisely controlled by the stepper motor. These motors are BLDC motors that control the rotation of the windings using an electronic driver. Electrical pulses are input to the driver in order to change the rotation of the windings, and the motor rotates one step for each pulse. So Permanent magnet, variable, and hybrid stepper motors are the three categories into which stepper motors fall. An overview of the hybrid stepper motor is covered in this article.
What is Hybrid Motor?
Definition: A hybrid motor is a pair of two motors, such as a permanent magnet and variable reluctance. According to the hybrid motor’s operating principle, the stator is electromagnetically energised similarly to a variable reluctance stepper motor while the rotor is magnetised axially like a permanent magnet stepper motor. Therefore, an actuator is responsible for converting electrical pulses into angular displacement.
This type of motor, when compared to other types, offers high torque along with a smaller step angle and good dynamic properties. The advancement of various industries, including computer technology, semiconductors, and permanent magnet materials, is accelerating daily. So The use of stepper motors is expanding in a variety of industries, including robotics, industrial automation, medicine, etc.
So Hybrid stepper motors are available in different types namely basic, encoder, IP65, brake, integrated type including drive & controller, brake, and geared.
Hybrid Stepper Motor Construction
The principles of two motors, such as a permanent magnet & variable reluctance stepper motor, can be combined to create a hybrid stepper motor. These motors come in a variety of step resolutions, including 0.9°, 1.8°, and 3.6°. This motor’s typical step resolution is 1.8°. These motors are primarily used in industrial applications because they exhibit high static and dynamic torque as well as run characteristics at extremely high step rates. Because they link the hybrid motor, the stator and rotor are crucial components in this motor. This motor has a tooth that resembles projections. Through the rotation, these teeth are connected in various ways.
The construction of stator is similar to variable reluctance otherwise permanent magnet stepper motor. In this motor, the rotor includes two equal stacks of flexible iron that is connected to the two poles of an axially magnetized round permanent magnet.
The rotor is mounted on the shaft and its teeth are connected over soft iron poles. In order to position the rotor pole correctly using the stator, these teeth are moved through an angle so that they resemble the north and south poles based on their ends.
Hybrid Stepper Motor Working Principle
The working principle of the hybrid stepper motor is similar to the permanent magnet motor. In the above motor diagram, it has two phases, four poles, and six tooth rotor. Once the xx’ is stimulated using DC supply then YY’ cannot excite. So the poles of the rotor will be changed from one direction to another.
Similar to this, if the YY’ phase is excited, XX’ will be turned off, changing the pole positions. As a result, the motor’s rotor will be rotated anticlockwise into a new position. The higher pole will change to the south and the lower pole to the north if the YY’ is excited in the opposite direction, and the rotor will then move in a clockwise direction.
A suitable sequence of pulses must be applied to the stator in order to move the motor in the desired direction. As a result, this will be protected in a new location for each excitement. This motor will maintain its locked state if the excitation is detached because of the excitation in a permanent magnet. This motor’s step-angle can be expressed as 30 degrees. Actually, multiple rotor poles can be used when designing these motors to achieve high angular resolution.
The features of the hybrid stepper motor mainly include
- Exact controlling of position
- So Controlling is simple using pulse signals
- The motor includes an Electromagnetic Brake
- So High torque can be generated through compact size
- At the stopped location, this motor holds itself
Difference between Permanent Magnet, Variable Reluctance & Hybrid Stepper Motor
The difference between these three motors is discussed below in the tabular format.
|Permanent Magnet||Variable Reluctance||Hybrid Stepper Motor|
|Step angle is larger or 7.5°||Smaller or 1.8°||Smaller or 1.8°|
|Design is Simple||Moderate||Complex|
|Response or Acceleration is Slow||Fast||Fast|
|Detent Torque is yes||No||No|
|Output torque is moderate||Low||High|
|Noise is Quiet||Loud||Quiet|
|Speed or Pulse Rate is Low||High||High|
|Microstep is Yes||No||Yes|
Hybrid Stepper Motor Advantages
The advantages of Hybrid Stepper Motor are as follows:-
- The torque of this motor is high
- The step length is less
- So It gives detent torque including de-energized windings
- The stepping rate is low.
- The efficiency of this motor is high at less speed.
Hybrid Stepper Motor Disadvantages
The disadvantages of the Hybrid Stepper Motor are as follows
- So These motors have high inertia
- The motor performance will be affected due to magnetic strength.
- This motor weight is high due to the rotor magnet within the motor
- This motor is expensive
The Hybrid Stepper Motor applications are as follows
- So These motors are applicable in the production of automated devices, gauges & machines used as cutting, labeling, packaging, filling, etc.
- So These are used in lane diverters, elevators, and conveyor belts.
- These are used in security devices like CC cameras
- So These are applicable for consumer electronics like printing machines, scanners, digital cameras, etc.
- So These motors are used in the medical field for photography of digital dental, liquid pumps, respirators, the machinery of blood analysis machinery, etc
So, a general overview of the hybrid stepper motor is covered in this article.Because it outperforms the permanent magnet rotor in terms of holding torque, speed, and step resolution, it is very well-liked. But in comparison to PM stepper motors, these are more expensive. So What are the three different types of stepper motors that are offered on the market, I ask you?