## Flip Flop and their conversion

Table of Contents

**Flip Flop and their conversion**

**Flip Flops and their conversion**

The flip flops is an important element of such circuits. It has the interesting property of An SR Flip flop has two inputs: . S for setting and R for Resetting the flip flop : . It can be set to a state which is retained until explicitly reset.

**RS Flip Flop**

A flip flop, as stated earlier, is a bistable circuit. Both of its output states are stable. The circuit remains in a particular output state indefinitely until something is done to change that output status. Referring to the bistable multivibrator circuit discussed earlier, . These two states were those of the output transistor in saturation (representing a LOW output) . And in cut-off (representing a HIGH output). If the LOW and HIGH outputs are respectively regarded as ‘0‘ and ‘1‘,

then the output can either be a ‘0‘ or a ‘1‘. Since either a ‘0‘ or a ‘1‘ can be held indefinitely until the circuit is appropriately triggered to go to the other state,. The circuit is said to have memory. It is capable of storing one binary digit or one bit of digital information. Also, if we recall the functioning of the bistable multivibrator circuit, we find that, . When one of the transistors was in saturation, the other was in cut-off. This implies that, if we had taken outputs from the collectors of both transistors, then the two outputs would be complementary.

In the flip flops of various types that are available in IC form, we will see that all these devices offer complementary outputs usually designated as Q and Q‘ The RS flip flops is the most basic of all flip flops . The letters ‘R‘ and ‘S‘ here stand for RESET and SET. When the flip-flops is SET, its Q output goes to a ‘1‘ state, and when it is RESET it goes to a ‘0‘ state. The Q‘ output is the complement of the Q output at all times.

**JK Flip Flop**

A JK flip flop behaves in the same fashion as an RS flip-flops except for one of the entries in the function table. In the case of an RS flip-flops, the input combination S = R = 1 (in the case of a flip-flops with active HIGH inputs) and the input combination S = R = 0 (in the case of a flip-flops with active LOW inputs) are prohibited. In the case of a JK flip flops with active HIGH inputs, the output of the flip-flops toggles,

that is, it goes to the other state, for J = K = 1 . The output toggles for J = K = 0 in the case of the flip-flops having active LOW inputs. Thus, a JK flip flops overcomes the problem of a forbidden input combination of the RS flip flops. Figures below respectively show the circuit symbol of level-triggered J-K flip-flops with active HIGH and active LOW inputs, along with their function tables.

The characteristic tables for a JK flip flops with active HIGH J and K inputs and a JK flip flop with active LOW J and K inputs are respectively shown in Figs 10.28(a) and (b)_ The corresponding Karnaugh maps are shown in Fig below for the characteristics table of Fig and in below for the characteristic table below. The characteristic equations for the Karnaugh map of below figure is shown next

FIG a. JK flip flop with active high inputs, b. JK flip flops with active low inputs

**Toggle Flip Flops (T Flip Flop)**

The output of a toggle flip-flops, also called a T flip flop, changes state every time it is triggered at its T input, called the toggle input. That is, the output becomes ‘1‘ if it was ‘0‘ and ‘0‘ if it was ‘1‘.

Positive edge-triggered and negative edge-triggered T flip flops, along with their function tables.

If we consider the T input as active when HIGH, the characteristic table of such a flip-flops is shown in Fig. If the T input were active when LOW, then the characteristic table would be as shown in Fig. The Karnaugh maps for the characteristic tables of Figs shown respectively. The characteristic equations as written from the Karnaugh maps are as follows:

**JK Flip Flop as a Toggle Flip Flop**

If we recall the function table of a JK flip flop, we will see that, when both J and K inputs of the flip-flops are tied to their active level (‘1‘ level if J and K are active when HIGH, and ‘0‘ level when J and K are active when LOW), the flip-flops behaves like a toggle flip-flop, with its clock input serving as the T input. In fact, the J-K flip-flops can be used to construct any other flip-flops. That is why it is also sometimes referred to as a universal flip flops . Figure shows the use of a JK flip flop as a T flip flops.

**D Flip Flop**

A D flip flop, also called a delay flip-flops , can be used to provide temporary storage of one bit of information. Figure shows the circuit symbol and function table of a negative edge-triggered D flip-flops. When the clock is active, the data bit (0 or 1) present at the D input is transferred to the output. In the D flip-flops of Fig the data transfer from D input to Q output occurs on the negative-going (HIGH-to-LOW) transition of the clock input. The D input can acquire new status

D Flip Flop truth table

**JK Flip Flop as D Flip Flop**

Figure below shows how a J-K flip-flops can be used as a D flip-flops . When the D input is a logic ‘1‘, the J and K inputs are a logic ‘1‘ and ‘0‘respectively. According to the function table of the J-K flip-flops, . Under these input conditions, the Q output will go to the logic ‘1‘ state when clocked. Also, when the D input is a logic ‘0‘, the J and K inputs are a logic ‘0‘ and ‘1‘ respectively. Again, according to the function table of the J-K flip-flops, under these input conditions, the Q output will go to the logic ‘0‘ state when clocked. Thus, in both cases, the D input is passed on to the output when the flip-flops is clocked.