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De-Morgan was a great logician and mathematician. He had contributed much to logic. Among his contribution the following two theorems are important
Demorgan’s theorem states that ―The complement of the sum of the variables is equal to the product of the complement of each variable‖. This theorem may be expressed by the following Boolean expression.
Demorgan’s theorem states that the ―Complement of the product of variables is equal to the sum of complements of each individual variables‖. Boolean expression for this theorem is
The Boolean functions are represented in various forms. The two popular forms are truth table and venn diagrams. Truth tables represent functions in a tabular form, while Venn diagrams provide a graphic representation. In addition, there are two algebraic representations know as the standard (or normal) form and the canonical form.
Canonical Form of Boolean Expressions
An expanded form of Boolean expression, where each term contains all Boolean variables in their true or complemented form, is also known as the canonical form of the expression. As an illustration,
is a Boolean function of three variables expressed in canonical form. This function after simplification reduces to
and loses its canonical form.
MIN TERMS AND MAX TERMS
Any boolean expression may be expressed in terms of either minterms or maxterms. To do this we must first define the concept of a literal. A literal is a single variable within a term which may or may not be complemented. For an expression with N variables, minterms and maxterms are defined as follows :
A minterm is the product of N distinct literals where each literal occurs exactly once.
• A maxterm is the sum of N distinct literals where each literal occurs exactly once.
A product-of-sums expression contains the product of different terms, with each term being either a single literal or a sum of more than one literal. It can be obtained from the truth table by considering those input combinations that produce a logic ‘0‘ at the output. Each such input combination gives a term, and the product of all such terms gives the expression. Different terms are obtained by taking the sum of the corresponding literals. Here, ‘0‘ and ‘1‘ respectively mean the uncomplemented and complemented variables, unlike sum-of-products expressions where ‘0‘ and ‘1‘ respectively mean complemented and uncomplemented variables.
Since each term in the case of the product-of-sums expression is going to be the sum of literals, this implies that it is going to be implemented using an OR operation. Now, an OR gate produces a logic ‘0‘ only when all its inputs are in the logic ‘0‘ state, which means that the first term corresponding to the second row of the truth table will be A+B+C. The product-of-sums Boolean expression for this truth table is given by Transforming the given product-of-sums expression into an equivalent sum-of-products expression is a straightforward process. Multiplying out the given expression and carrying out the obvious simplification provides the equivalent sum-of-products expression:
A given sum-of-products expression can be transformed into an equivalent product-of-sums expression by (a) taking the dual of the given expression, (b) multiplying out different terms to get the sum-of products form, (c) removing redundancy and (d) taking a dual to get the equivalent product-of-sums expression. As an illustration, let us find the equivalent product-of-sums expression of the sum-of products expression